The concept of an ideal state has been a topic of interest for philosophers throughout history. In this article, we will explore the ideas of two influential philosophers, Plato and Machiavelli, who have made significant contributions to the field of political philosophy. We will delve into their theories on statecraft and the pursuit of an ideal state.

Plato’s Political Philosophy

Plato, one of the most renowned philosophers in history, developed a comprehensive theory of political philosophy. He explored various aspects of philosophy, including epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. Plato’s ideas have had a profound impact on Western philosophy, with many considering his works as the foundation of the European philosophical tradition. His philosophy is characterized by the use of dialectic, a method of discussion that aims to uncover profound insights into the nature of reality.

The Ideal State

Plato argues that the best political order is one that leads to a harmonious unity of society, allowing each part to flourish without compromising others. He believes that conflicting interests within society can be harmonized through the implementation of a rational and righteous political order. According to Plato, the theoretical design and practical implementation of such an order are impossible without virtue.

The Role of Virtue

Virtue plays a crucial role in Plato’s political philosophy. He argues that a just society can only be achieved if its rulers possess the virtue of wisdom. Plato’s ideal state is governed by philosopher-kings, individuals who have attained the highest level of wisdom and possess a deep understanding of the nature of reality. These philosopher-kings are responsible for making decisions that promote the well-being of society as a whole.

The Influence of Plato’s Ideas

Plato’s ideas on political philosophy have had a profound impact on subsequent political theory. His works influenced Aristotle, another prominent philosopher, who further developed and expanded upon Plato’s ideas. Plato’s philosophy continues to shape our understanding of statecraft and the pursuit of an ideal state.

Machiavelli’s Statecraft

Niccolò Machiavelli, an Italian Renaissance political philosopher, is known for his works “The Prince” and “The Art of War.” Machiavelli’s writings provide valuable insights into the pursuit of an ideal state from a different perspective.

The Prince

In “The Prince,” Machiavelli explores the qualities and actions that a ruler must possess to maintain power and achieve stability in a state. He argues that a ruler should prioritize the preservation of power and be willing to employ any means necessary to achieve this goal. Machiavelli’s ideas challenge traditional notions of morality and emphasize the pragmatic aspects of statecraft.

The Art of War

Machiavelli’s “The Art of War” focuses on military strategy and the importance of a well-organized and disciplined army. He emphasizes the need for a ruler to be knowledgeable about military affairs and to adapt their strategies based on the circumstances. Machiavelli’s insights into warfare and military tactics have been influential in the field of military science.


The pursuit of an ideal state has been a subject of contemplation for philosophers throughout history. Plato and Machiavelli, two influential philosophers, have provided valuable insights into this topic. Plato’s political philosophy emphasizes the role of virtue and the harmonious unity of society, while Machiavelli’s statecraft focuses on the preservation of power and the pragmatic aspects of governance . By studying the ideas of these philosophers, we can gain a deeper understanding of the complexities involved in the pursuit of an ideal state.

Please note that this article provides a brief overview of the subject matter and does not cover all aspects in detail. Further reading on Plato’s political philosophy and Machiavelli’s works is recommended for a more comprehensive understanding.

: Plato - Wikipedia
Plato’s Political Philosophy - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Niccolò Machiavelli - Wikipedia